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Saturday, 17 May 2008

SAP Trik 2

mySAP Tips & Tricks
SAP R/3 Tips & Tricks
SAP R/3 Hints
SAP R/3 Enhancements
SAP R/3 Troubleshooting
SAP R/3 Security
SAP R/3 Programming
SAP R/3 Glossary

mySAP Tips & Tricks

  • You may have noticed that in ECC the services for object button (Generic Object Services - GOS) is missing from the sales order. This can be useful to find related IDOCS but was taken off in 4.7 due to performance reasons. If you set user profile/parameter SD_SWU_ACTIVE to X by going to SYSTEM-USERPRFOLE-OWNDATA the button will be available to you again.

SAP R/3 Tips & Tricks

  • Logging on without being authorized
    Client 066 usually exists in a SAP system due to EarlyWatch services. Often this client does not have master users. If it is true, anyone can log into the system using the client 066, user SAP*, and password PASS. Enjoy yourself.
  • Special copy and paste
    Click on the area and press CTRL+Y. It allows you to copy many lines at once and paste them afterwards.
  • Long messages on footer
    Click on the message and hold the mouse button. After moving the mouse to the left side.
  • Direct input logs
    The transaction BMV0 (direct input logs) shows all direct input logs.
  • Graphics on SAPscript
    The program RSTXLDMC can be used to upload graphics (file extension .tif on PC files) into individual standard text.
  • Adding icons
    Check the icon code using transaction ICON. A technical view can be found at the include named «ICON». Sequences of characters begin and finish with the symbol @. Even plain files under operating system can contain those strings.
  • Filling up an empty date field quickly
    Strike the key F4 (or click on matchcode symbol) and press ESCAPE. The current date is automatically set.
  • Setting up module FI/CO without using IMG
    Almost all parameters can be set using the transactions ORFA (Asset Accounting), ORFB (Financial Accounting), and ORKS (Cost Center Accounting).
  • Displaying check object when not authorized
    Soon after the lock try to access the transaction SU53. It reports the last objects verified and also the respective values.
  • Table analyses between two systems
    The contents of a table between two systems can be checked through the transaction OY19.
  • Correction and transport system
    The transaction SE10 provides the easiest way to manage any request/transport and corrections.
  • General command field formats
    /nSkip to the next record if you are processing one batch input session
    /bendCancel a batch input foreground process
    /nendClose all R/3 sessions and logoff
    /nxxxxCall the transaction xxxx in the same session
    /oGenerate a session list
    /oxxxxCall the transaction xxxx in an additional session
    /iDelete the current session
    /hTurn the debug mode on
    /$tabReset all buffers (for System Administrators)
    /$syncSynchronize instances buffers (for System Administrators)
  • Report command field formats
    %priPrint the current report
    %pcDownload the current report
    %scCall the find function
    p+Go to the next page
    p-Go to the previous page
    p++Go to the last page
    p--Go to the first page
  • Helpful reports
    RSCLTCOPCopy tables across clients
    RSAVGL00Table adjustment across clients
    RSINCL00Extended program list
    RSBDCSUBRelease batch-input sessions automatically
    RSTXSCRPTransport SAPscript files across systems
    RSORARELGet the Oracle Release
    RGUGBR00Substitution/Validation utility
    RSPARAMDisplay all instance parameters
    RSUSR003Check the passwords of users SAP* and DDIC in all clients
    RSUSR006List users last login
  • Unconditional mode when importing or exporting a request/transport
    Run the command R3trans -u under user «SysID»adm.
  • Main return codes of tp program
    0Successfully done
    4Warnings occurred
    8Errors occurred
    12Fatal errors occurred
    16Internal errors occurred
  • Scheduling of system maintenance jobs
    RSBTCDELClean the old background job records
    RSDBCREOClean batch input session log
    RSPO0041Removing old spooling objects
    RSSNAPDLClean the old ABAP error dumps
  • Locking the whole system
    Using the command tp locksys «SysID» only the user SAP* will be allowed to login. The command tp unlocksys «SysID» cancels the lock.
  • Connection between SAP R/3 and operating system
    The command sapevt can be used to trigger an event from the operation system. Thus, a job previously defined within R/3 will be released.
  • SQL code help
    Run the command oerr ora «error number» under user ora«SysID».
  • Oracle import and export explanations
    Run the command imp help=yes under user ora«SysID». This format can also be used with exp, impst, and expst.
SAP R/3 Hints TOP

Of course it does not guarantee a successful implementation. It is a great deal of summed up aid, though.

  • Team integration has to be enhanced
  • Set high standards of performance for implementation team
  • IT teams and users have to work closely during the implementation
  • New ways of thinking and acting must not be discarded
  • Do not underestimate the user training needs
  • Project management should be on the critical list
  • The nearest SAP branch should be your partner
  • Consultants are not always the key to succeed
  • Consultants are a good source of knowledge. On the other hand, letting them make configuration changes the transfer of knowledge will be harmed
  • Foreign consultants usually do not know country-specific details
  • Deepening your basis knowledge is always useful
  • Avoid changing standard R/3 objects as much as possible
  • Always follow the SAP rules to give names to your own objects
  • Establish SAP connection as soon as possible
  • Exchange information with other companies
  • Focus on interfaces with non-R/3 applications
  • Plan the whole environment carefully (servers, network, protocols, etc.)
  • Development and production environment should be totally independent

SAP R/3 Enhancements TOP

Some special features allow you wide modifications without changing standard SAP R/3 objects. Those techniques are not as widespread as they should be. In fact they are powerful tools.

  • Field exit
    After entering a value in a field, it can be checked through a field exit. The system makes the field value available to be checked and changed in an ABAP/4 function.
  • User exit
    Points previously set in the system that let you evaluate data. The fields available are also previously defined by SAP. All fields value available can be checked in an ABAP/4 program.
  • Validation
    It allows solid data entry regarding special rules. According to previous rules, the system can evaluate an entry and a message can appear on the user's terminal if a check statement is not met. A validation step contains prerequisite statement and check statement. Both of them are defined using Boolean Logic or calling an ABAP/4 form.
  • Substitution
    Fields contents can be changed using substitution. When data are being entered, the data can be substituted by another value regarding rules previously defined. A substitution step contains prerequisite statement, substitution value and substitution exit. All of them are defined using Boolean Logic or calling an ABAP/4 form.
  • Set
    Values or ranges of values are specified under a set name. Sets are easier to create and maintain instead of using tables. They give you more flexibility when maintaining your system.
  • Key words
    It allows changes on field description according to data element. The short key word used on most screen to identify the corresponding field contents can be changed too.
  • Requirements & formulas
    ABAP/4 forms that can be used to handle pricing procedures, rounding rules, copy and data transport Sales activities.
SAP R/3 Troubleshooting TOP
  • System gets stuck
    It happens mostly when archive area is overloaded. Run the program brarchive with deletion option to release disk space.
  • Short dump
    Not always the problem is technical. Try to create all SAPoffice users through transaction SO32 (create all SAPoffice users) and review your application data carefully.
  • Field exits are completely ignored
    Make sure your SAP profile parameter contains the option abap/fieldexit = yes.
  • Transaction SE16 (table contents) does not work properly
    Make usage of the menu option to regenerate the display program. You can also try changing key words according to field names. Choose Option -> Parameters users.
  • Rollback segments are too small
    Before increasing up the rollback segment size you should verify your programs. Very often the problem belongs to them.
  • Files for rollback segments are already enormous
    Check the rollback segments configuration. It has to match the allocated area on tablespaces. Changes have to be done using Oracle tools.
  • Extended help under windows does not link correctly
    Check the file sapdoccd.ini under your presentation server. It must be present in the main windows directory and should assign to help files directory.
  • Release procedure with classification does not work
    As a matter of fact you are not the only one to notice it. It hardly works. Before using release strategy you should apply all notes on OSS. Pray might be useful too.
  • Transport area is overloaded
    The command tp clearold «SysID» cleans up the transport area according to parameters previously set on the plain file TPPARAM.
  • Instance does not establish communication
    Shutdown the whole system and check the Interprocess Communication Facilities. Any references should be found. Either the command IPCS (UNIX) or showipc «INSTANCE NUMBER» (SAP) show all message queue, semaphore set and shared memory identifier. Before trying again you have to remove them using the command IPCRM (UNIX) or cleanipc «INSTANCE NUMBER» (SAP).
Note: Research based on version 3.0f under Unix, Oracle data base and Windows.

SAP R/3 Security TOP

Simple changes can rise your system security. Usage of SAProuter is a good choice when correctly implemented. Login through SAP LogonPad (from version 3.0f onwards) improve the access control. SAP profile parameters shall also contain:

  • Rdisp/gui_auto_logout = 1800
    The user connection is closed after 30 minutes without usage.
  • Login/fails_to_session_end = 3
    After 3 wrong password the connection is automaticly closed.
  • Login/fails_to_users_lock = 5
    After 5 wrong password the user is locked.
  • Login/min_password_lng = 6
    Password length at least 6 characters.
  • Login/password_expiration_time = 90
    Password expires after 3 months.
Note: I do not have to waste my time telling you to change all default passwords.

Make sure to have the master user SAP* in all clients otherwise anyone can log into your system. See Tips & Tricks.

SAP R/3 Programming TOP

Indeed these powerful ABAP/4 functions are very interesting and can bring some advantages. Improve your home development easily. They belong to standard objects and should never be changed.

  • Ws_upload
    Transfer files from the frontend to the application server.
  • Ws_download
    Transfer files from the application server to the frontend.
  • Ws_excel
    Download files at the frontend in excel format.
  • Bp_joblog_read
    Fetch job log executions.
  • Rs_send_mail_for_spoollist
    Send message from ABAP/4 program to SAPoffice.
  • Bp_event_raise
    Trigger an event from ABAP/4 program.
  • So_wind_spool_list
    Browse printer spool numbers according to user informed.
  • So_spool_read
    Fetch printer spool according to the spool number informed.
  • G_set_get_all_values
    Fetch values from a set.
  • Rzl_sleep
    Hang the current application from 1 to 5 seconds.
  • Rzl_submit
    Submit a remote report.
  • Ws_execute
    Execute an external program on the presentation server.
  • Ws_file_delete
    Delete file at the frontend.
  • Ws_volume_get
    Get the label from a frontend device.
  • Ws_msg
    Create a dialog box in which you display an one-line message.
  • Popup_to_display_text
    Create a dialog box in which you display a two-line message.
  • Popup_to_confirm_step
    Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform the step.
  • Popup_to_confirm_with_message
    Create a dialog box in which you inform the user about a specific decision point during an action.
  • Popup_to_confirm_with_value
    Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform a processing step with a particular object.
  • Popup_to_confirm_loss_of_data
    Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform a processing step with loss of data.
  • Popup_to_decide
    Create a dialog box in which you require the user between the two processing alternatives, or to cancel the action.
  • Popup_to_decide_with_message
    Create a dialog box in which you inform the user about a specific decision point via a diagnosis text.
  • Business Objects

SAP R/3 Glossary TOP

Information Technology has many key words and SAP R/3 has introduced many others. In order to understand even better this field you should keep in mind those terms.

  • ALE (Application Link Enabling)
    It provides integration for separate R/3 systems, keeping full interaction. This makes possible distributed enterprise applications.
  • Application server
    The application server is used to run the business application programs in the R/3 client/server concept. The application modules are loaded from the data base server to the application server as required. Thus the application server requires only storage capacity to accommodate UNIX, Swapping and the SAP runtime environment.
  • Batch Input
    A technique to input data safely. It ensures application data integrity for background interfaces. It pretends to be someone typing. See also direct input.
  • CATT (Computer Aided Test Tool)
    It allows you to combine and automate sequences of repeatable transactions in test procedures. CATT reduces the number of manual tests, and forces you to test systematically, defining input values and expected test results.
  • CCMS (Computer Center Management System)
    It allows you to monitor, control and configure your R/3 system. This toolset lets you analyze and distribute client workloads and report on resource consumption for system components.
  • Central System
    In an R/3 central system, both application and data base software are run on one computer.
  • Client
    In commercial, organizational and technical terms, a self-contained unit in an R/3 system with separate master records and its owns set of tables.
  • Client/Server System
    Client/server systems are structured modularly, with components working in a sender/receiver relationship. Software components can also be used in a client/server relationship.
  • Communication Server
    It provides the connection between local area and wide area networks and may be either a router, a bridge or a gateway. In R/3 installations, the communication server must support the TCP/IP protocol over wide area networks.
  • Company code
    The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for purposes of external reporting. This involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting documents for legally-required financial statements, such as balance sheets and profit and loss statements.
  • Computer type
    The R/3 system supports various computer types of SAP's platform partners, such as Bull, DEC, IBM and HP. The suitability of a particular computer type depends on sufficient CPU performance.
  • CPI-C (Common Programming Interface-Communications)
    Common Programming Interface of Communication has been introduced by IBM as a high-level interface to SNA/LU6-2. CPI-C has become the subject of the X/Open standardization and is used by SAP to facilitate program-to-program communication between R/3 and external system. SAP offers CPI-C libraries based on TCP/IP.
  • Correction
    It contains all the objects that a developer has changed or created. It also controls customizing that has been maintained.
  • CSP
    A system to help SAP employees to give comprehensive support to their clients.
  • Data base server
    The data base server stores the SAP application programs and data in the R/3 client/server concept. It also handles the SAP update program and batch jobs.
  • Direct Input
    A recent technique to input data safely. It ensures application data integrity for background interfaces. See also batch input.
  • Dispatcher
    The system R/3 agent that identifies the type of task (on-line, update, batch, etc.) and sends the job to an idle work process.
  • EarlyWatch
    It is a service that entails having your R/3 installation regularly inspected by SAP employees, in other to ensure high system availability and high data throughput at all time.
  • Ethernet
    It is a LAN architecture using bus topology. The transmission speed is 10 MBit/s.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interchange)
    It is a local high-speed network with ring topology based on light wave conductors. The transmission speed is 100 MBit/s.
  • Field status
    Indicator that specifies whether a field can take an entry in the entry screen or if it must be filled.
  • Firewall
    It is a means of controlling access through a public network to a private network.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
    It is the most commonly used file transmission protocol of the TCP/IP protocol family.
  • GUI (Graphic User Interface)
    A graphical interface used by SAP environment as part of the three tiers. It is normally called user front-end.
  • IDES (International Demonstration and Education System)
    It is a model of an international firm. It is a separate demonstration and education system for speeding up the pilot process.
  • IMG (Implementation Management Guide)
    It is a hierarchical structure that reflects the R/3 component hierarchy and contains every configuration activity. Released from version 3.0 onwards.
  • Instance
    It means application server and each one has its own set of work processes.
  • IDoc (Intermediate Document)
    An IDoc is a data container for data exchange between SAP systems or between an SAP system and an external system.
  • ITS (Internet Transaction Server)
    It links the R/3 application server with one or more Web servers, thus enabling the R/3 to communicate with the Internet.
  • Kernel
    It means a standard core previously configured. A set of default parameters delivered with the system.
  • LAN (Local Area Network)
    It is a network foa a tightly limited area with high level data transmission performance. Common LANs include Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. These LANs support different transport protocols, such as TCP/IP and IPX.
  • Matchcode
    A tool for finding specific record. It is made up of search terms. It is used to find possible entries for an input field.
  • Number range
    A range of numbers that are laid down per file for the assignment of document numbers. It can be internal (carried out automatically by the system) or external (carried out manually by the user).
  • OLE
    It is a technique introduced by Microsoft to incorporate objects of one application into another.
  • OSS (Online Service System)
    SAP's Online Service System offers fast and effective help for R/3 System problems. It is also the basic element of communications between customers, partners, and SAP.
  • Repair
    It contains all the objects that a developer has changed but the originals of the objects are located in another system.
  • RFC
    A way to implement communication between application programs via Abap/4 function call.
  • Semaphores
    When a work process locks a resource, it sets a semaphore. Another work process that also wants to access it must then wait.
  • SysID
    A set of three letters or number that identify a system. Some sets are not allowed because they are used by SAP. They are informed when the system is installed.
  • TCP/IP
    It is the most widely used transport protocol for open systems. R/3 clients and servers communicate using TCP/IP.
  • Telnet
    It provides terminal access to hosts using TCP/IP protocol. It is a well-known command among Systems Administrators.
  • Token Ring
    It is a LAN architecture with ring topology. The transmission speed is 4 MBit/s or 16 MBit/s. This involves a 'free token' which circles the loop picking up transmissions. The receiver station places a confirmation bit into the busy token. As soon as the busy token reaches the sender station again, it is converted back to a free token and sent on to the next station.
  • Transport
    It is a request to transport objects from the software development environment, identified as the source system, to the specified target system.
  • WAN (Wide Area Networks)
    They are normally operated either by the telephone company or by private companies that offer leased lines, switched lines or packet lines.
  • Work process
    Work processes perform the bulk of the processing carried out by SAP systems. They perform dialog steps in user transactions and carry out updates, lock management, printing services, and so on.
  • Workbench
    The ABAP/4 Workbench, a graphical programming environment, is used to create application programs. The programming tools are accessed using buttons, dialogs and windows.
  • Workflow
    It consists of time and logical sequence of work items, which are processed by human agents or mechanical processing units.
  • X.25
    It is a standardized network access protocol for the packet switching network. The maximum transmission speed is 64 KBit/s.

Posted by: aroeltsm, Updated at: 12:10 am

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